The Federated Malay States Railways (FMSR 1901-1941 )
was a consolidated railroad operator in British Malaya (present day Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore) during the first half of the 20th century. Named after the then recently formed Federated Malay States in 1896 and founded five years after the formation of the federation, the company acquired various railways that were developed separately in various parts of Malaya, and oversaw the largest expansion and integration of the colonies' rail network encompassing the Federated Malay States, the Unfederated Malay States (except Terengganu) and the Straits Settlements, with lines spanning from Singapore to the south to Padang Besar to the north.
World War II and the end of the FMSR
The outbreak of World War II was marked with the Japanese Empire's invasion of Malaya and Singapore in 1941 and 1942, which saw the entirety of the FMSR network falling under Japanese control. The system suffered minimal damage during the initial invasion and bombing runs, but saw the dismantling and closure of minor branch lines during the occupation for construction materials for the Thailand-Burma Railway. Similarly, several FMSR locomotives were transferred for use at the Thailand-Burma Railway during the period, but were eventually returned after the war.
Following the end of the war, the FMSR continued to operate as an entity for three years under the British Military Administration and Malayan Union, before it is renamed in 1948 as the Malayan Railway Administration (also known simply as the Malayan Railway, or MR) as the Malayan Union is reinstitute as the Federation of Malaya.
The Malayan Railway would in turn be formally re branded with a Malay translation of the name, Keretapi Tanah Melayu, in 1962.
The organisation was corporatised in 1992, but remains wholly owned by the Malaysian government.
Before FMSR, Constituent Railways:
- Perak Government Railway 1885 - 1901
- Selangor Government Railway 1886 - 1901
- Sungei Ujong Railway 1891 - 1908
- Malacca Government Railway 1905 - 1906
- Johore State Railway 1909 - 1912
- The Johore Wooden Railway 1875 - 1880s
- The Muar State Railway 1890 - 1929
- The Sarawak Government Railway 1915 - 1947